Skin Care is most often a misunderstood term.
Skin Care is a general term used for care and treatments given to skin that is ailing.
So what on earth is skin care?
The goal of skin care is the preservation of the hygienic state of the skin under ideal conditions of cleanliness and comfort.
The term Skin Care encompasses all practices designed to maintain the integrity of the skin, improve the appearance, and relieve skin conditions.
Some of the basic skin care practices include a conservative diet, preventative sun exposure, and the proper use of emollients. (Emollients soften and moisturize the skin and lessen itchiness and flaking).
Skin Care practices that enhance appearance are cosmetics, exfoliation, botox, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy, High intensity focused ultrasound, thermage, PDO Threads, etc.
A person’s skincare routine varies every day, depending on whether his or her skin is either too dry or too moist, the presence of dermatitis, or the presence of skin injuries.
For holistic & long-term skin care it is essential to merge therapeutic treatments like facial & clean-ups with effective clinical solutions.
Giving a facial to your skin is like using a conditioner to your hair.
Facial Therapies, if done regularly can provide long-lasting elasticity, restore PH balance, increase blood circulation and help in the reduction of fine lines.
Facial therapies complement your daily skin care routine and are essential for sustaining skin health.
Cutting-edge clinical treatments like lasers, radio-wave surgery & minimally invasive procedures help you in taking your skin care routine a step forward.
Combining daily essentials & clinical treatments into a customised treatment program for each individual attains better results with a treatment regimen that achieves the best of both worlds.
How to Build Your Perfect Skin Care Routine?
The right routine starts by knowing what type of skin you have.
That’s when you can find out how to treat it.
What is your skin type?
Follow these easy steps to know your skin type;
Step 1: The first step is to cleanse your face with a gentle face wash to remove dirt & grime.
Step 2: One hour later, take a clean tissue and cover your face with it, pressing it against your skin.
Step 3: Remove the tissue and determine your skin type by referring to the details below
If the tissue is 90% clean, your skin type is normal.
Normal skin will have a fine and even texture with a supple smooth surface.
There will be a perfect balance between oil and moisture content for a person with normal skin.
Normal skin will be balanced, clear and not sensitive.
If the tissue has oil patches all over, your skin type is oily.
Oily skin will have a coarse appearance and texture due to enlarged pores.
The excess oil produced in oily skin type attracts dirt & dust.
Oily skin will be shiny, greasy, and may have big pores.
If the tissue is clean and has no trace of oil, your skin type is dry
Dry skin’s inability to retain moisture will leave the skin parched and will have a tendency to flake easily.
People with dry skin are prone to wrinkle & fine lines.
Dry skin tends to age faster than other skin types.
Dry skin will be flaky, scaly, or rough.
If the tissue has oily patches around your chin, nose and forehead, you have a combination skin type.
Combination skin will be partly dry and partly oily.
People with combination skin type are prone to haves pores that may be enlarged and blemished in the T-zone (chin, nose & forehead)
Combination skin will be dry in some spots (cheeks) and oily in others (forehead, nose, and chin).
All the above skin types can also be sensitive.
When you use certain makeup or other skin care products, you may experience stinging, burning, or itching on your sensitive skin.
Skin care routine
It doesn’t matter what skin type you have, daily skin care routines can help you maintain overall skin health and improve specific problems like acne, scarring, and dark spots.
Four simple steps can be carried out daily as part of your skin care routine.
Use a cleanser that leaves your skin feeling soft and not tight after washing.
It is recommended that you don’t wash your face more than twice a day, or as little as once if you have dry skin.
Generally, for the dry skin type, it is advisable not to wear any kind of makeup.
Avoid washing just to feel clean because you’re actually removing your skin’s natural oils.
There are several cleansers that are known to work well for all skin types, choose cleansers that are soap-free.
Step 2: Moisturisers
Oily skin also needs a moisturizer.
For oily skin, you need a moisturiser that’s lightweight, gel-based, and non-comedogenic.
Ensure you use a moisturiser that doesn’t block your pores.
Dry skin may benefit from more cream-based moisturizers.
Most brands will label their products as gel or cream on their packaging.
Step 3: Sunscreen
Apply sunscreen with at least 30 SPF before going outdoors.
Sunscreen should be applied 15 minutes before going outdoors because it takes a while for sunscreen to become effective.
Use sunscreen which offers broad-spectrum UVA/UVB protection.
Choose products that fit your skin type and sensitivity, also remember to read the labels.
Step 4: Serums
Serums containing vitamin C, growth factors and peptides are best used in the morning, under sunscreen.
The best option at night is to use retinol or prescription retinoids.
There are a wide variety of skin-care products available now, but there is still no such thing as an instant fix for skin issues – you need to devote time to see results.
The benefits of skin care products are only noticeable with regular use.
It is generally recommended to use a product for at least six weeks, once or twice daily, to notice a difference.
You should apply skin-care products in order from thinnest to thickest consistency. For example, cleanser, toner, serum, moisturizer.
The recommended method for cleaning your face
1. Normal Skin
Use your fingertips to apply an appropriate cleanser or soap.
Be careful not to scrub your face.
Alternatively, rinse your face with plenty of warm water before patting it dry.
Take care not to use any soap that is available at the moment for washing your face.
Neither is it necessary for you to buy expensive skin care products.
All you need to do is find the right skin care products that do not dry your skin or make it oily.
2. Dry Skin
A gentle cleanser without alcohol or fragrance is suggested for people with dry skin.
Alcohol & ingredients used as fragrances in the cleanser can dry out skin even further.
Gently apply cleanser on your face and rinse with plenty of warm water.
Avoid using hot water as it removes natural oils from your face faster.
Exfoliate once a week to get rid of flaky skin and get even & clearer-looking skin.
3. Oily Skin
Use of an oil-free foaming cleanser is recommended to wash oily skin.
Application of the cleanser should be followed by rinsing with plenty of warm water.
Pat dry your face with a clean towel.
Use a toner or astringent after washing your face if it does not irritate your skin.
A toner/astringent helps in removing excess oil from the skin and helps in keeping your skin clean.
4. Combo Skin
Use your fingertips to apply an appropriate cleanser or soap.
Be careful not to scrub your face.
Rinse your face with plenty of warm water before patting it dry.
Choosing an appropriate skin care product is recommended.
5. Sensitive Skin
Using a gentle cleanser and rinsing with warm water is recommended for sensitive skin.
Skin care products that have soap or alcohol or fragrance or acid should be avoided.
Use a simple product without too many ingredients.
Skin care products with calming ingredients like aloe, green tea polyphenols, chamomile and oats are recommended.
The face should be pat dried after washing. Rubbing the towel against your skin can irritate it.
Do not exfoliate as this may irritate your skin.
Non-Pathologic Skin conditions and their cosmetic treatments
Let us now understand a few Non-pathologic skin problems that appear on your face and affect your looks.
Acne is a skin condition that occurs when oil and dead skin cells accumulate in your hair follicles.
It causes whiteheads, blackheads, or pimples.
There is strong evidence that acne is largely hereditary.
Certain hereditary features can make individuals more acne-prone and result in large pores or a weakened immune system.
Based on the condition acne is classified into Mild, Moderate & severe.
There are a few effective ways to control your acne. With the appropriate acne treatment, you can keep breakouts in check and attain a clear & balanced skin tone.
Normally chemical peels are used as part of treatment.
Refer Acne-prone Skin for more details
The term folliculitis refers to conditions in which the hair follicles become inflamed and form a red, sensitive lesion sometimes with a surface pustule.
Folliculitis is caused due to infection, occlusion (blockage), irritation and various skin diseases.
This infection may be superficial or deep. It can appear on body parts with hairs, including chest, back, buttocks, arms, and legs. Acne and its variants are also types of folliculitis.
Oral & topical antibiotics are prescribed for mild conditions.
3. Acne Scars
Acne turns Severe when it is not treated early.
Severe acne results in scars.
Partial laser therapy or PRP treatments are used to treat acne scars.
Refer Acne-prone Skin for more details
4. Aging Skin
Aging is inevitable, and everyone experiences it.
Stress and exposure to pollution in our day-to-day life takes a toll on our Skin.
Due to stress & pollution, many of us experience early signs of aging.
Fine lines and wrinkles on the face are a few signs of early aging.
Muscle movements tend to cause wrinkles as part of the aging process.
A gradual decrease in fibers that provide a smooth and tight texture to the skin also plays a part in wrinkle formation.
Wrinkles near the eye tend to appear first.
A wrinkle is typically visible as a horizontal line across the forehead or as vertical frown lines running between the eyebrows.
Wrinkles around the lips are usually the last to appear.
The neck has delicate skin and ages very quickly. The skin dries and usually horizontal wrinkles appear.
The appearance of wrinkles can be delayed but cannot be completely prevented.
You can prevent the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by avoiding smoking, alcohol, waking up late at night and staying outdoors in the sun without required protection.
Eating the right food also helps in keeping the skin blemish-free.
A variety of non-surgical procedures are used to smooth out wrinkles.
Research suggests a combination of treatments is likely to produce the most effective results.
A few anti-aging treatments that are normally suggested during your visit to Cosmetic Skin care clinic include Chemical Peels, Botox (Anti Wrinkle injections), Dermal Fillers & Mesotherapy.
For more details refer How to remove wrinkles from face?
Any mark, spot, discoloration, or flaw appearing on the skin can be called a blemish.
A blemish on your face may be unpleasant and be emotionally upsetting, but most are harmless and not life-threatening.
However, some blemishes are signs of skin cancer.
Generally, Calac lotion & moisturisers are suggested in cases that are just superficial.
6. Brown Spots/Discoloured skin
Brown spots or discolored skin spots are small, flat dark areas on the skin.
They appear in different sizes and are frequently found on exposed skin, such as the face, hands, shoulders and arms.
Using a broad-spectrum sunscreen that helps protect against two types of the sun’s rays (UVA and UVB) may prevent more age spots.
Chemical Peel is a very popular treatment for reducing brown spots as it offers instant results and can be done as an outpatient procedure.
7. Excessive Facial Hair
Androgens, popularly referred to as male hormones, are responsible for body hair development. Men and women both produce them.The body can produce too many androgens under certain medical conditions.
Females with excessive androgen production may develop more body hair than is typical.
Laser treatment effectively helps achieve smooth and hair-free skin.
The laser is a hair reduction treatment and not a hair removal procedure. It works on the hair follicles, reducing their fertility and capacity to re-grow.
It drastically reduces hair growth in 5-6 sessions, thus resulting in permanently smooth, soft skin.
Risks of side effects vary with skin type, hair color, treatment plan, and adherence to pre-treatment and post-treatment care. The most common side effects of laser hair removal include temporary discomfort, redness, and swelling. These symptoms typically disappear within a few hours.
Laser hair removal might darken or lighten the affected skin. These changes might be temporary or permanent.
For more details read Laser Hair Reduction Cost in India
8. Flaking and cracking skin
Dry, cracked, or flaky skin is also known as Scaling skin or desquamation.
Scaling occurs when the outer layer of skin, called the epidermis, begins to flake off.
Skin scaling may result from an injury or a medical condition that damages the skin’s top layer.
Use of cream-based moisturisers is recommended for dry skin with no other complications.
Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition.
When patches of skin appear darker than the surrounding skin it is called Hyperpigmentation.
Our skin gets its colour because of melanin pigment.
.When the skin produces more melanin, hyperpigmentation occurs.
As a result, spots or patches of skin can appear darker than surrounding areas.
Touching or picking injuries often is also responsible for hyperpigmentation formation.
In order to prevent hyperpigmentation or stop it from becoming more prominent avoid exposure to the sun and use sunscreen that is not less than SPF 30.
Chemical peels, Microdermabrasion, Laser therapy & Intense pulsed light are some of the treatments used to reduce the effects of hyperpigmentation.
Points to keep in mind when you visit a skin care clinic
- Do proper research and Visit a certified derma clinic
- Do proper research as to what type of skin you have before visiting the clinic
- When you visit the clinic for consultation, gather information on the instruments being used for your treatment
- Get to know what products (brand) will be used for your treatment
- Enquire about the duration of the treatment
- Choose a good package or payment system where one has the option of paying in installments rather than going for a one-time settlement.
- Check for any after-therapy a so-called maintenance cost involved to enable you to better manage your finance.
- Do proper research about the instruments & products being used before taking the treatment
- Choose the place where you undergo treatment based on the expertise of the doctor/dermatologist/esthetician treating you. Do not fall prey to the big discounts being offered
A few well-known skin care clinics which are based out of multiple cities in India are;
- Oliva Skin and Hair Clinic
- Kosmaderma Skin and Hair Clinics
- Bodycraft Clinic
- Vibes Healthcare
- VLCC Healthcare Ltd
- Kaya Skin Clinic
- Skin Lab
- Kolors Health Care